Compare Meiji Draft
The Constitution of the Empire of Japan
Having, by virtue of the glories of Our Ancestors, ascended the throne of a lineal succession unbroken for ages eternal; desiring to promote the welfare of, and to give development to the moral and intellectual faculties of Our beloved subjects, the very same that have been favoured with the benevolent care and affectionate vigilance of Our Ancestors; and hoping to maintain the prosperity of the State, in concert with Our people and with their support, We hereby promulgate, in pursuance of Our Imperial Rescript of the 12th day of the 10th month of the 14th year of Meiji, a fundamental law of the State, to exhibit the principles, by which We are guided in Our conduct, and to point out to what Our descendants and Our subjects and their descendants are forever to conform.
The right of sovereignty of the State, We have inherited from Our Ancestors, and We shall bequeath them to Our descendants. Neither We nor they shall in future fail to wield them, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution hereby granted.
We now declare to respect and protect the security of the rights and of the property of Our people, and to secure to them the complete enjoyment of the same, within the extent of the provisions of the present Constitution and of the law.
The Imperial Diet shall first be convoked for the 23rd year of Meiji, and the time of its opening shall be the date, when the present Constitution comes into force.
When in the future it may become necessary to amend any of the provisions of the present Constitution, We or Our successors shall assume the initiative right, and submit a project for the same to the Imperial Diet. The Imperial Diet shall pass its vote upon it, according to the conditions imposed by the present Constitution, and in no otherwise shall Our descendants or Our subjects be permitted to attempt any alteration thereof.
Our Ministers of State, on Our behalf, shall be held responsible for the carrying out of the present Constitution, and Our present and future subjects shall forever assume the duty of allegiance to the present Constitution.
Chapter I. The Emperor
The Empire of Japan shall be reigned over and governed by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages eternal.
The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by Imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law.
The Emperor is sacred and inviolable.
The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution.
The Emperor exercises the legislative power with the consent of the Imperial Diet.
The Emperor gives sanction to laws, and orders them to be promulgated and executed.
The Emperor convokes the Imperial Diet, opens, closes and prorogues it, and dissolves the House of Representatives.
The Emperor, in consequence of an urgent necessity to maintain public safety or to avert public calamities, issues, when the Imperial Diet is not sitting, Imperial Ordinances in the place of law.
(2) Such Imperial Ordinances are to be laid before the Imperial Diet at its next session, and when the Diet does not approve the said Ordinances, the Government shall declare them to be invalid for the future.
The Emperor issues or causes to be issued, the Ordinances necessary for the carrying out of the laws, or for the maintenance of the public peace and order, and for the promotion of the welfare of the subjects. But no Ordinance shall in any way alter any of the existing laws.
The Emperor determines the organization of the different branches of the administration, and salaries of all civil and military officers, and appoints and dismisses the same. Exceptions especially provided for in the present Constitution or in other laws, shall be in accordance with the respective provisions (bearing thereon).
The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and Navy.
The Emperor determines the organization and peace standing of the Army and Navy.
The Emperor declares war, makes peace, and concludes treaties.
The Emperor proclaims the law of siege.
(2) The conditions and effects of the law of siege shall be determined by law.
The Emperor confers titles of nobility, rank, orders and other marks of honor.
The Emperor orders amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishments and rehabilitation.
A Regency shall be instituted in conformity with the provisions of the Imperial House Law.
(2) The Regent shall exercise the powers appertaining to the Emperor in His name.
Chapter II. Rights and Duties of Subjects
The conditions necessary for being a Japanese subject shall be determined by law.
Japanese subjects may, according to qualifications determined in laws or ordinances, be appointed to civil or military offices equally, and many fill any other public offices.
Japanese subjects are amenable to service in the Army or Navy, according to the provisions of law.
Japanese subjects are amenable to the duty of paying taxes, according to the provisions of law.
Japanese subjects shall have the liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits of the law.
No Japanese subject shall be arrested, detained, tried or punished, unless according to law.
No Japanese subject shall be deprived of his right of being tried by the judges determined by law.
Except in the cases provided for in the law, the house of no Japanese subject shall be entered or searched without his consent.
Except in the cases mentioned in the law, the secrecy of the letters of every Japanese subject shall remain inviolate.
The right of property of every Japanese subject shall remain inviolate.
(2) Measures necessary to be taken for the public benefit shall be any provided for by law.
Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief.
Japanese subjects shall, within the limits of law, enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, publication, public meetings and associations.
Japanese subjects may present petitions, by observing the proper forms of respect, and by complying with the rules specially provided for the same.
The provisions contained in the present Chapter shall not affect the exercise of the powers appertaining to the Emperor, in times of war or in cases of a national emergency.
Each and every one of the provisions contained in the preceding Articles of the present Chapter, that are not in conflict with the laws or the rules and discipline of the Army and Navy, shall apply to the officers and men of the Army and of the Navy.
Chapter III. The Imperial Diet
The Imperial Diet shall consist of two Houses, a House of Peers and a House of Representatives.
The House of Peers shall, in accordance with the Ordinance concerning the House of Peers, be composed of the members of the Imperial Family, of the orders of nobility, and of those persons, who have been nominated thereto by the Emperor.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members elected by the people, according to the provisions of the Law of Election.
No one can at one and the same time be a Member of both Houses.
Every law requires the consent of the Imperial Diet.
Both Houses shall vote upon projects of law submitted to it by the Government, and may respectively initiate projects of law.
A Bill, which has been rejected by either the one or the other of the two Houses, shall not be again brought in during the same session.
Both Houses can make representations to the Government, as to laws or upon any other subject. When, however, such representations are not accepted, they cannot be made a second time during the same session.
The Imperial Diet shall be convoked every year.
A session of the Imperial Diet shall last during three months. In case of necessity, the duration of a session may be prolonged by the Imperial Order.
When urgent necessity arises, an extraordinary session may be convoked, in addition to the ordinary one.
(2) The duration of an extraordinary session shall be determined by Imperial Order.
The opening, closing, prolongation of session and prorogation of the Imperial Diet, shall be effected simultaneously for both Houses.
(2) In case the House of Representatives has been ordered to dissolve, the House of Peers shall at the same time be prorogued.
When the House of Representatives has been ordered to dissolve, Members shall be caused by Imperial Order to be newly elected, and the new House shall be convoked within five months from the day of dissolution.
No debate can be opened and no vote can be taken in either House of the Imperial Diet, unless not less than one third of the whole number of the Members thereof is present.
Votes shall be taken in both Houses by absolute majority. In the case of a tie vote, the President shall have the casting vote.
The deliberations of both Houses shall be held in public. The deliberations may, however, upon demand of the Government or by resolution of the House, be held in secret sitting.
Both Houses of the Imperial Diet may respectively present addresses to the Emperor.
Both Houses may receive petitions presented by subjects.
Both Houses may enact, besides what is provided for in the present Constitution and in the Law of the Houses, rules necessary for the management of their internal affairs.
No Member of either House shall be held responsible outside the respective Houses, for any opinion uttered or for any vote given in the House. When, however, a Member himself has given publicity to his opinions by public speech, by documents in print or in writing, or by any other similar means, he shall, in the matter, be amenable to the general law.
The Members of both Houses shall, during the session, be free from arrest, unless with the consent of the House, except in cases of flagrant delicts, or of offences connected with a state of internal commotion or with a foreign trouble.
The Ministers of State and the Delegates of the Government may, at any time, take seats and speak in either House.
Chapter IV. The Ministers of State and the Privy Council
The respective Ministers of State shall give their advice to the Emperor, and be responsible for it.
(2) All Laws, Imperial Ordinances, and Imperial Rescripts of whatever kind, that relate to the affairs of the State, require the countersignature of a Minister of State.
The Privy Councillors shall, in accordance with the provisions for the organization of the Privy Council, deliberate upon important matters of State, when they have been consulted by the Emperor.
Chapter V. The Judicature
The Judicature shall be exercised by the Courts of Law according to law, in the name of the Emperor.
(2) The organization of the Courts of Law shall be determined by law.
The judges shall be appointed from among those, who possess proper qualifications according to law.
(2) No judge shall be deprived of his position, unless by way of criminal sentence or disciplinary punishment.
(3) Rules for disciplinary punishment shall be determined by law.
Trials and judgments of a Court shall be conducted publicly. When, however, there exists any fear that, such publicity may be prejudicial to peace and order, or to the maintenance of public morality, the public trial may be suspended by provisions of law or by the decision of the Court of Law.
All matters, that fall within the competency of a special Court, shall be specially provided for by law.
No suit at law, which relates to rights alleged to have been infringed by the illegal measures of the executive authorities, and which shall come within the competency of the Court of Administrative Litigation specially established by law, shall be taken cognizance of by a Court of Law.
Chapter VI. Finance
The imposition of a new tax or the modification of the rates (of an existing one) shall be determined by law.
(2) However, all such administrative fees or other revenue having the nature of compensation shall not fall within the category of the above clause.
(3) The raising of national loans and the contracting of other liabilities to the charge of the National Treasury, except those that are provided in the Budget, shall require the consent of the Imperial Diet.
The taxes levied at present shall, in so far as are not remodelled by new law, be collected according to the old system.
The expenditure and revenue of the State require the consent of the Imperial Diet by means of an annual Budget.
(2) Any and all expenditures overpassing the appropriations set forth in the Titles and Paragraphs of the Budget, or that are not provided for in the Budget, shall subsequently require the approbation of the Imperial Diet.
The Budget shall be first laid before the House of Representatives.
The expenditures of the Imperial House shall be defrayed every year out of the National Treasury, according to the present fixed amount for the same, and shall not require the consent thereto of the Imperial Diet, except in case an increase thereof is found necessary.
Those already fixed expenditures based by the Constitution upon the powers appertaining to the Emperor, and such expenditures as may have arisen by the effect of law, or that appertain to the legal obligations of the Government, shall be neither rejected nor reduced by the Imperial Diet, without the concurrence of the Government.
In order to meet special requirements, the Government may ask the consent of the Imperial Diet to a certain amount as a Continuing Expenditure Fund, for a previously fixed number of years.
In order to supply deficiencies, which are unavoidable, in the Budget, and to meet requirements unprovided for in the same, a Reserve Fund shall be provided in the Budget.
When the Imperial Diet cannot be convoked, owing to the external or internal condition of the country, in case of urgent need for the maintenance of public safety, the Government may take all necessary financial measures, by means of an Imperial Ordinance.
(2) In the case mentioned in the preceding clause, the matter shall be submitted to the Imperial Diet at its next session, and its approbation shall be obtained thereto.
When the Imperial Diet has not voted on the Budget, or when the Budget has not been brought into actual existence, the Government shall carry out the Budget of the preceding year.
The final account of the expenditures and revenues of the State shall be verified and confirmed by the Board of Audit, and it shall be submitted by the Government to the Imperial Diet, together with the report of verification of the said Board.
(2) The organization and competency of the Board of Audit shall be determined by law separately.
Chapter VII. Supplementary Rules
When it has become necessary in future to amend the provisions of the present Constitution, a project to that effect shall be submitted to the Imperial Diet by Imperial Order.
(2) In the above case, neither House can open the debate, unless not less than two thirds of the whole number of Members are present, and no amendment can be passed, unless a majority of not less than two thirds of the Members present is obtained.
No modification of the Imperial House Law shall be required to be submitted to the deliberation of the Imperial Diet.
(2) No provision of the present Constitution can be modified by the Imperial House Law.
No modification can be introduced into the Constitution, or into the Imperial House Law, during the time of a Regency.
Existing legal enactments, such as laws, regulations, Ordinances, or by whatever names they may be called, shall, so far as they do not conflict with the present Constitution, continue in force.
(2) All existing contracts or orders, that entail obligations upon the Government, and that are connected with expenditure, shall come within the scope of Article 67.
First Government Draft (March 2, 1946)
Draft Constitution of Japan (First Government Draft)
March 2, 1946
Source: Charles L. Kades papers, Gordon W. Prange Collection, University of Maryland.1
Chapter I. The Emperor
The Emperor shall be the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people, deriving his position from the sovereign will of the people.
The Imperial Throne shall be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with the Imperial House Law.
The advice of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state, and the Cabinet shall be responsible therefore.
The Emperor shall perform only such state functions as are provided for in this constitution. Never shall he have powers related to government.
(2) The Emperor may delegate a part of his functions as may be provided by law.
When, in accordance with the imperial House Law, a regency is established, the Regent shall exercise his functions in the Emperor’s name. In this case, paragraph one of the preceding article will be applicable.
The Emperor shall appoint the Prime Minister as resolved by the Diet.
The Emperor, with the advice of the Cabinet, shall perform the following functions of state on behalf of the people:
1. Promulgations of amendments of the constitution, laws, cabinet orders, and treaties.
2. Convocation of the Diet.
3. Dissolution of the House of Representatives.
4. Proclamation of general elections.
5. Appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State, Ambassadors, and other officials as provided for by law.
6. General and special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.
7. Awarding of honors.
8. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers.
9. Performance of ceremonial functions.
No property can be given to, or received by, the Imperial House, and no receipts and disbursements can be made thereby, without the authorization of the Diet.
Chapter II. Renunciation of War
War, as a sovereign right of the nation, and the threat or use of force, is forever abolished as a means of settling disputes with other nations.
(2) The maintenance of land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, and the right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.
Chapter III. Rights and Duties of the People
The people shall not be prevented from enjoying any of the fundamental human rights. In view of their historical background precious to all, these fundamental human rights guaranteed to the people by this constitution shall be conferred upon the people of this and future generations as eternal and inviolate rights.
The enjoyment of the freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by this constitution shall be maintained by the eternal vigilance of the people, and the people shall refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and shall always be responsible for utilizing them for the public welfare.
All of the people shall be respected as individuals, and their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness shall, within the limits of the public welfare, be the supreme consideration in legislation and in governmental affairs.
All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic, or social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status, or family origin. No privilege shall accompany peerage, decoration or any distinction.
Aliens shall have equal rights to receive protection from the law.
Government officials and other public officials are public servants of the state and society, and the source of power to choose and to dismiss them resides in the whole people.
In all elections, secrecy of the ballot shall be preserved inviolate, nor shall any voter be answerable for the choice of candidates he has made.
All of the people have the right of petition for the redress of damage. For the removal of public officials and for the enactment, repeal or amendment of laws and ordinances, nor shall they be inflicted any harm for sponsoring such a petition.
All of the people shall have the freedom of religion, nor shall they be compelled to take part in worship, prayer and other religious acts.
(2) No religious organization shall take part in politics, nor receive any privilege from the State.
(3) The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity.
Freedom of thought and conscience are guaranteed to all of the people.
All of the people shall have the freedom of speech, writing, press, assembly and association to the extent that they do not conflict with the public peace and order.
(2) No censorship shall be maintained except as specifically provided by law.
The secrecy of letter and other means of communication is guaranteed to all of the people provided that necessary measures to be taken for the maintenance of public peace and order, shall be provided by law.
Academic freedom is guaranteed to all of the people.
All of the people shall have the right to receive an equal education corresponding to his ability as provided by law. Such education shall be free.
All of the people have the right to work as provided for by law.
Workers shall have the right to organize and to bargain and act collectively as provided by law.
All of the people shall have the freedom to choose and change their residence and to choose their occupation to the extent that it does interfere with the public welfare.
(2) Freedom of all of the people to move to a foreign country and to divest themselves of their nationality shall be inviolate.
All of the people shall not be denied the right to be tried by the judges as prescribed by law.
All of the people shall not be deprived of life or liberty, nor shall any criminal penalty be imposed upon them, except according to the law.
(2) No cruel punishments shall be inflicted.
All of the people shall not be held in bondage of any kind against their will, nor shall they be compelled to servitude, except as punishment for crime.
(3) The exploitation of children shall be prohibited.
No person shall be apprehended except upon duly issued warrant unless he is apprehended while committing a crime, nor shall he be detained without adequate cause.
No person shall be reexamined for the same crime for which the judgment of court has become irrevocable except in the case of reexamination as provided by law.
No person shall be compelled to confess or testify against himself.
No person shall be punished retroactively for an act which was lawful at the time it was committed.
All of the people shall be secure in their homes against entries and searches except as provided for by law.
(2) Except in cases of emergency, entries into homes, searches and seizures shall not be made except upon duly issued warrant.
The right to own property is guaranteed to all of the people.
(2) The substance and scope of property rights shall be defined by law in conformity with the public welfare.
Property rights is accompanied by obligations. Its use shall be made for the public welfare.
Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation, with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.
All laws and ordinances pertaining to the national livelihood shall be designed for the guarantee of freedom, enhancement of justice and for the promotion and extension of public welfare and of democracy.
Chapter IV. The Diet
The Diet shall be the highest organ of state power, and shall exercise the legislative power.
The Diet shall consist of two houses, namely the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors.
The House of Representatives shall consist of elected members.
(2) The number of the members of the House of Representatives shall be fixed by law between three hundreds (300) and five hundreds (500).
The qualifications of electors and candidates for the House of Representatives shall be fixed by law. However, there shall be no discrimination because of sex, race, religion, or social status.
The term of office of members of the House of Representatives shall be 4 years. However, the term may be terminated before the full term is up, by dissolution of the House of Representatives.
Matters pertaining to the method of election of members of the House of Representatives, electoral districts, and method of voting, shall be fixed by law.
The House of Councillors shall consist of members elected for the various districts or professions and members appointed by the Cabinet upon resolution of a committee consisting of members of both Houses.
(2) The number of members of the House of Councillors shall be fixed by law between two hundreds (200) and three hundreds (300).
The term of office of the members of the House of Councillors shall be six years, except for half the members serving in the first term. Election for half the members of each kind shall take place every three years.
Matters pertaining to the election or appointment of members of the House of Councillors, the number of members of each kind and qualifications of candidates therefor shall be fixed by law.
No person shall be permitted to be a member of both Houses simultaneously.
Members of both Houses shall receive appropriate annual payment from the national treasury in accordance with the law.
Except in cases provided by law, members of both Houses shall be exempt from arrest while the Diet is in session. Any member arrested before the opening of the session shall be freed during the term of the session upon demand of his House.
Members of both Houses shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches, debates, or votes cast inside the house.
The Diet shall be convoked at least once per year.
The Cabinet may call extraordinary sessions of the Diet. When a quarter or more of the total members of either House makes the demand, the Diet may be called into session.
When the House of Representatives is ordered dissolved, there must e a general election of members of the House of Representatives during the period within thirty (30) or forty (40) days from the date of dissolution, and the Diet must be convoked within thirty (30) days from the date of the election. When the House of Representatives is ordered dissolved the House of Councillors must, at the same time, be closed.
The House of Representatives shall not be dissolved repeatedly for the same cause.
Each House shall judge disputes related to qualifications and elections of its members.
Business cannot be transacted in either House unless at least one-third of the total membership is present.
(2) All matters shall be decided in each House, by a majority of those present, except as elsewhere provided in the Constitution. In case of a tie, the presiding officer shall decide the issue.
Deliberation in each House shall be public. No secret meetings shall be held.
(2) Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. This record shall be published and distributed to the public.
(3) Upon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, votes of the members on any matter shall be corded in the minutes.
Each House shall select its own president and other officials.
(2) Each House shall establish its rules and regulations pertaining to meetings and proceedings, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon.
No law shall be passed except by bill.
(2) A bill becomes a law on passage by both Houses.
(3) A bill, which is passed a third time consecutively by the House of Representatives and sent to the House of Councillors, becomes a law, regardless of whether the decision of the House of Councillors is made or not, upon the lapse of two years since the day when the House of Representatives opened the business on the bill for the first time.
The budget must first be submitted to the House of Representatives.
(2) Upon consideration of of the budget, when the House of Councillors makes a decision different from that of the House Representatives, and when a joint committee of both Houses, provided by law, cannot come to an agreement, the decision of the House of Representatives will be considered the decision of the Diet.
The second paragraph of the preceding article supplies also to the Diet approval required for the conclusion of treaties, the international conventions and agreements.
Each House may conduct investigations in relation to national affairs, and may compel the presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records. In such cases, each House can punish in accordance with law, those who do not comply with the demands.
The Prime Minister, and the Ministers of State, may at any time, appear in either House for the purpose of debating on bills, regardless of whether they are members of the House or not. They must appear when their answer to interpellations or questions is required.
The Diet shall set up an impeachment court from the members of both Houses for the purpose of trying those judges against whom removal proceedings have been instituted.
The Diet shall enact all laws necessary to carry into execution the provisions of this Constitution.
Chapter V. The Cabinet
Executive power shall be vested in the Cabinet.
The Cabinet shall consists of the Prime Minister, who shall be its head, and other Ministers of State, as provided for by law.
(2) The Cabinet, in the exercise of executive power, shall be collectively responsible to the Diet.
The Prime Minister shall be designated by a resolution of the Diet. This designation shall precede all other business.
The Prime Minister shall, with the approval of the Diet, designate the Ministers of State. The second paragraph of the preceding article shall apply to this approval.
(2) The Prime Minister may decide on the removal of Ministers of State as he chooses.
If the House of Representatives passes no-confidence resolution, or fails to pass a confidence resolution, the Cabinet shall resign en masse, unless it dissolves the House of Representatives within ten days.
When there is a vacancy in the post of Prime Minister, or upon the convocation of the Diet after a general election caused by the expiration of term of members of the House of Representatives, the Cabinet shall resign en masse.
In the cases mentioned in the preceding two articles, the Cabinet shall continue its functions until the time when a new Prime Minister is appointed.
The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Diet, and exercises supervision and control over various administrative branches.
The Cabinet, in addition to other general administrative functions shall:
1. Administer the law faithfully;
2. Conduct affairs of State.
3. Manage foreign affairs.
4. Conclude treaties, international conventions and agreements. However, it shall obtain prior or, depending on circumstances, subsequent approval of the Diet.
5. In accordance with standards established by the Diet, manage internal administrative affairs.
6. Prepare the budget, and present it to the Diet.
7. Enact and promulgate orders and regulations in order to carry out the provision of this Constitution and of the law. However, it cannot include penal provisions in such orders and regulations.
8. Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.
In cases where the Diet cannot be convoked due to the dissolution of the House of Representatives and other causes the Cabinet may, if there is a particularly urgent necessity for the maintenance of the public safety, enact a cabinet order to be substituted for law or budget on the condition that a subsequent approval of the Diet be obtained therefor.
All laws and orders shall be signed by the competent Minister of State, and countersigned by the Prime Minister.
The Ministers of State, during their tenure of office, shall not be subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister, but the right to take that action is not impaired hereby.
Chapter VI. Judiciary
Judicial power shall independently be exercised by the court.
The Court shall consist of a Supreme Court and such other inferior courts as provided by law.
(2) No extraordinary tribunal shall be established.
The Supreme Court shall be the Court of last resort.
As for litigations on the constitutionality of law and order, or administrative act pertaining to the provisions of Chapter III of this Constitution, the trial of the Supreme Court shall be final.
The Supreme Court shall have the sole Jurisdiction over cases involving ambassadors, ministers and consuls for foreign states.
All judges shall strictly and impartially execute their duty according to their conscience.
(2) Judges shall be bound, in the exercise of their duty, only by this Constitution and laws.
The appointment of the judges of the Supreme Court shall be reviewed by the people at the first general election of the House of Representatives following their appointment and shall be reviewed again at the first general election of the House of Representatives after a lapse of ten years, and in the same manner thereafter.
(2) In bases mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, when the majority of the voters show that they favor the dismissal of a judge he shall be dismissed.
(3) Matters pertaining to the review mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs shall be prescribed by law.
The judges of the inferior courts shall be appointed from among candidates of at least twice the required number, who will be nominated by the Supreme Court.
(2) The judges of the inferior courts shall hold office for a term of ten (10) years with privilege of reappointment.
The judges shall be retired automatically upon the attainment of the age of seventy (70) years.
Except in case mentioned in the preceding three Articles, the judge shall not be dismissed unless by penal sentence, judgement of impeachment court or judgement of dismissal by the court as disciplinary action or on account of mental or physical incompetency.
The judges shall receive adequate compensation as provided by law. The compensation of judges shall not be decreased against their will unless as a disciplinary action or for other reasons as specifically provided by law.
Trials shall be conducted and judgement declared publicly. Where, however, a court determines publicity to be dangerous to public order and morals as provided for by law, a trial may be conducted privately.
(2) The proviso of the preceding paragraph shall not be applied to trials of political offenses, offenses involving the press, and other cases wherein the rights of people guaranteed in Chapter III of this Constitution are in question.
The Supreme Court may determine the details of procedure, the internal discipline of the courts and other rules necessary for the administration of judicial affairs except as provided by this Constitution and laws.
(2) An inferior court may determine its rules necessary for the administration of judicial affairs as authorized by the Supreme Court.
Chapter VII. Finance
Imposition of new taxes or modification of existing ones shall be prescribed by law.
(2) The existing taxes shall continue to be collected as heretofore unless changed or modified by law.
No national loan shall be raised, nor shall any contract imposing a burden on the national treasury be entered into in the absence of an appropriation therefor except as authorized by the Diet.
Matters pertaining to the determination of the value of currency and issuance thereof shall be provided by law.
An annual budget setting forth annual expenditure and revenue of the State shall be submitted to the Diet for approval.
In order to provide for unavoidable deficiencies in the budget or for necessary expenditures outside the appropriation of the budget a reserve fund shall be established.
The budget concerning allowances and expenses of the Imperial Household shall constitute a part of the national budget. The same shall apply to the income and expenditure arising from Imperial properties other than the hereditary estates.
Neither the State nor the local public entity shall appropriate money or other properties for religious associations. The same shall apply to appropriations for charitable educational and other similar purposes not under the control of the State.
A final audit of annual expenditures and revenues of the State shall be made and determined by board of audit and submitted by the Cabinet to the Diet during the fiscal year immediately following the period covered.
(2) The organization and competency of the board of audit shall be fixed by law.
At least annually the Cabinet shall report to the Diet and the people on the state of national finance.
Matters pertaining to national finances and state property shall be prescribed by law except as provided in this Chapter.
Chapter VIII. Local Self Government
Regulations concerning organization and operations of local public entities shall be fixed by law in accordance with the principle of local autonomy.
The local public entities shall establish assemblies as their deliberation organs, in accordance with law.
(2) The chief executive officers of the local public entities having the power to levy local taxes, the members of their legislative assemblies shall be elected by inhabitants thereof.
Inhabitants of local public entities shall have the right to self government and may enact by-laws and regulations within law.
A special law applicable only to one local public entity, cannot be enacted by the Diet without the consent of the majority of the voters or the local public entities concerned, obtained in accordance with law.
Chapter IX. Supplementary Provisions
Amendments to this Constitution shall be initiated by the Diet and submitted to the people for ratification.
(2) The initiative of the Diet shall not be taken unless by concurring vote of two-thirds of more of all the members of each House.
(3) The ratification of the people shall be decided by a majority of all votes cast therefor at such national referendum as law shall prescribe.
(4) Draft amendments to this Constitution shall become final as the amendments to this Constitution upon ratification by the people.
(5) Amendments to this Constitution shall be proclaimed by the Emperor in accordance with the provision of Article 7 of this Constitution.
Amendments to the Imperial House Law shall be initiated by the Emperor in accordance with the provisions of Article 3 of this Constitution by submitting to the Diet a draft which shall be decided under the same provisions as in the base of a bill.
(2) Amendments to the Imperial House Law as passed by the Diet under the preceding paragraph shall be proclaimed by the Emperor in accordance with the provisions of Article 7 of this Constitution.
This Constitution and the laws and treaties made in pursuance hereof shall be the supreme law of the state and no law or ordinance and no imperial rescript or other administrative acts contrary to the provisions thereof, shall have legal force or validity.
The Ministers of State, members of the Diet, judges and all other public officials in office at the time of the enforcement of this Constitution, shall remain at their posts in accordance with existing provisions of law regardless of the provisions of this Constitution, until their successors are elected or appointed.
The Emperor or the Regent, the Ministers of State, the members of the Diet, judges, and all other public officials have the obligation to respect and uphold this Constitution.