Public Opinion Polls

1. Governmental Organizations

  • Cabinet Office (Japanese)
    The cabinet office has conducted public opinion polls since 1947 and published the survey results on this website; the organization held polls regarding the constitution between 1956 and 1971. The survey list contains polls on Japanese security issues and diplomacy, which include questionaries related to constitution discussion as well. 

  • Prime Minister's Office of Japan/Kantei (English)
    Associated with the Foreign Press Center, Kantei published a report, "Public Opinion Survey on Society and State (Summary)"in May 1993. This survey shows the Japanese people’s thoughts on images of Japan and its role in international society. In 1993, Japan struggled to determine its international role, though it had been recognized as an economic world power. Japan was criticized by its allies for providing only money to the Gulf War in 1991. The question of if the Japanese Self-Defense Forces should join its allies or not was being considered. The discussion was fundamentally related to the constitution; Article 9 determines how Japan enacts its right of collective self-defense. 

2. Media

  • Asahi Shimbun (Japanese)
    The Asahi Shimbun has regularly conducted public opinion polls, occasionally focusing on the constitution. Generally, the Asahi Shimbun is known as a “liberal” newspaper and for being against constitutional revision by the LDP, especially the Abe administration (2012-2020). Here is one of the editorial articles from the Asahi Shimbun as an example that represents the newspaper’s arguments. In the article, the writer criticized the Abe administration for not having the legitimacy to lead constitutional revision, pointing out its favoritism scandals and the cabinet members’ remarks ignoring social diversity and individual dignity.

    • TV Asahi (Japanese)
      This website provides public opinion polls that TV Asahi's news show, “Hōdō Station”, has held since 2006. TV Asahi is an affiliate company of the Asahi Shimbun, and the tone of its arguments in “Hōdō Station” is regarded as “liberal”. In addition to polls regarding constitutional revision, this website contains graphs of approval/disapproval ratings of the current government and major political parties.

  • Fuji News Network/FNN: Sankei Shimbun, Fuji Television (Japanese)
    The Sankei Shimbun company and Fuji Television are both part of the Fuji News Network (FNN) group. FNN has held a public opinion poll approximately once every month; past poll results from December 2012 through March 2018 are reachable here. The poll questionnaires have been different each time to accord with current issues but occasionally asked people’s opinions related to the constitution. The Sankei Shimbun has generally been recognized as a “conservative” newspaper and is seen as being inclined to support constitutional revision via its columns; here is one of the column examples, which claimed the Abe administration should move forward with constitutional revision (August 4, 2017).

  • Japan News Network/JNN: TBS Television (Japanese)
    Japan News Network (JNN) is one of the biggest news network groups in Japan. It is composed of several television stations, including its key station, TBS (Tokyo Broadcasting System). This archived website provides results of polls conducted by JNN from December 2009 through February 2022. The polls focused on timely topics and occasionally contained questions related to constitutional discussion. For instance, the urgent poll that JNN had in September 2015 featured the security bills just approved in the Diet; by the bills, Japan became able to enact the right of collective self-defense and broaden SDF mission range.

  • Mainichi Shimbun (Japanese)
    The Mainichi Shimbun has conducted public opinion polls and released the survey results on this web page. The Mainichi Shimbun’s argument tone has generally been prudent in constitutional revision. Broadly, the Mainichi Shimbun is known as a “liberal” newspaper and as being critical against constitutional revision led by the LDP. Here is one example editorial article from the Mainichi Shimbun, which criticized the LDP's constitutional revision proposals, which the LDP collected in the party at the end of 2017 (March 1, 2018).

  • Nikkei Shimbun (Japanese)
    The Nikkei Shimbun has regularly held polls multiple times per year from 1987 to 2005 and basically every month after 2006. The Nikkei Shimbun is generally regarded as comparatively “neutral” while the audience generally sees the Asahi Shimbun as “left” and the Sankei Shimbun as “right”. The Nikkei Shimbun has encouraged constitutional discussion but criticized the Abe administration for ignoring opinions from opposition parties; here is an example article to show their political stance (May 2, 2018).

  • Niconico (Japanese)
    Niconico is a Japanese video sharing platform. They send out online questionnaires to their members each month. This website contains polls held after January 2015 (older polls held before 2014 are available here). Regarding the in-total and gender-segregated results, they refer to votes from members between 18 and 49 years old. According to the website, members are mostly under 49  years old. Generally, Niconico's polls showed higher approval rating for the Abe administration (2012-2020), which vigorously pushed constitutional revision, than other media's. Niconico broadcasts a live program to examine the poll results each time they publish a new poll result.

  • Nifty (Japanese)
    Nifty is an internet service provider which also runs a news website, Nifty News. Nifty has regularly collected votes for questionnaires from its users. The survey topics have a wide range, from hobbies to politics. On February 16, 2018, Nifty released a survey on constitutional revision; the questions and results are available with the editorial staff’s comments. 

  • Japan Broadcasting Corporation/NHK (Japanese)
    The Japanese national public broadcasting organization, NHK, has regularly held polls on the constitution. In 2017, NHK conducted a public opinion poll on the constitution of Japan to mark the 70th anniversary of its enactment; the poll result is available here

  • Japan Press Research Institute (Japanese)
    This group has regularly held opinion polls asking people’s opinions on newspapers and media. The poll results are available on this website; the surveys have occasionally contain questionaries regarding media reporting on constitutional revision since 2013.

  • Yomiuri Shimbun (Japanese)
    The Yomiuri Shimbun has occasionally included a question or some questions regarding the constitution in its monthly poll, which follows current political circumstances. The Yomiuri Shimbun has argued for constitutional revision regarding multiple articles, including Article 9 to provide constitutional legitimacy to the SDF; see for example this editorial column (May 3, 2018).

    • Nippon Television Network Corporation (NTV): Nippon TV (Japanese)
      Since 1974, NTV has officially been owned by the Yomiuri Group, which prints the Yomiuri Shimbun. Nippon TV publishes its poll results on this website. Nippon TV has held a public opinion poll regarding the current government every month, which occasionally contains questionaries related to constitutional revision.   

3. Others

  • Junior Chamber International Japan (Japanese)
    Promoting constitutional revision, the Junior Chamber International Japan (JCIJ) published a constitutional draft in 2005. In July 2017, this organization held polls for a debate event regarding constitutional revision; the main topic of the debate event was “if the constitution should specify expansion of free education”. 

  • Institute of Statistical Mathematics (Japanese)
    This institute was founded in 1944 as an organization for statistical studies under the Ministry of Education. The institute started a project on "National Character” in 1953, conducting a survey once every five years; the 1993 survey included a question related to constitutional revision.